WALLACE SMITH BROECKER, Columbia University professor and researcher, was known in science circles as brilliant and the “Grandfather of Climate Science,” because he brought “global warming” into common use with a 1975 article that correctly predicted rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere would lead to pronounced temperature rises. Said Princeton University professor Michael Oppenheimer. “He wasn’t fooled by the cooling of the 1970s. He saw clearly the unprecedented warming now playing out and made his views clear, even when few were willing to listen.” Broecker said “In the Ocean Conveyor Belt, cold, salty water in the North Atlantic sinks, working like a plunger to drive an ocean current from near North America to Europe. Warm surface waters borne by this current help keep Europe’s climate mild.” Otherwise Europe would be in deep freeze, with average winter temperatures dropping by 11C (20F) and London feeling more like Spitsbergen, Norway (600 miles north of the Arctic Circle).